American Journal of Aerospace Engineering

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Comparative Studies on Methods to Overcome the Ionospheric Effects on GNSS Signals

Received: Jul. 10, 2022    Accepted: Aug. 16, 2022    Published: Aug. 31, 2022
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Abstract

Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals are relatively weak in nature and are more difficult to detect under impaired visibility conditions. For an effective position solution accuracy measurement of pseudorange solving for three unknown positions (latitude, longitude, and altitude) using at least three satellites are possible. One more satellite is required as time is considered as another unknown for solving the receiver clock bias. Ionospheric delay can cause error in pseudorange measurements. This is caused due to free ions which interfere with the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal. These free ions in the atmosphere are created by solar and cosmic radiation. The ionospheric delay/ phase advance depends on weather, geographic location, solar, geomagnetic activities etc. Therefore, ionospheric delay is unpredictable. Ionospheric delay is considered a significant source of error in measuring the position solution determined by the GNSS signals. This paper proposes two main ideas for overcoming the ionospheric effects. One idea establishes that the inclusion of more satellites or Multi-GNSS scheme could be useful for overcoming the ionospheric effects. The other idea is to deliberately choose ionofree data for obtaining a better solution accuracy. This paper shows the usability of two aforesaid processes in different scenarios. The paper identified the sources of error mentioned by the previous research groups. From this background study the motivation for this research had been identified. Then the paper is organized with research methodology, obtained results, their discussions. In the conclusion section the gaps and future scopes for study have been discussed.

DOI 10.11648/j.ajae.20220902.11
Published in American Journal of Aerospace Engineering ( Volume 9, Issue 2, December 2022 )
Page(s) 28-32
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Pseudorange, Ionospheric, GNSS, Multi-GNSS

References
[1] Bassiri, S. & Hajj, G. A. (1993). Higher-order ionospheric effects on the global positioning system observables and means of modeling them. manuscripta geodaetica, Vol. 18, No. 6, pp. (280-289).
[2] Barua, S., Walter, T., Blanch, J. & Enge, P. (2008). Bounding higher-order ionosphere errors for the dual-frequency GPS user. Radio Sci., Vol. 43, No. RS5010, pp. (15), doi: 10.1029/2007RS003772.
[3] Davies, K., “Ionospheric Radio”, IEEE Electromagnetic Waves Series 31, Peter Peregrinus Ltd., 1990.
[4] El-Arini, M. B., R. S. Conker, S. D. Ericson, K. W. Bean, F. Niles, K. Matsunaga and K. Hoshinoo, “Analysis of the Effects of Ionospheric Scintillation on GPS L2 in Japan,” Proc. ION-GPS-2003.
[5] Effect of Ionospheric Scintillations on GNSS –A White Paper (November 2010), SBAS Ionospheric Working Group.
[6] Fritsche, M., Dietrich, R., Knöfel, C., Rülke, A., Vey, S., Rothacher, M. & Steigenberger, P. (2005). Impact of higher-order ionospheric terms on GPS estimates. Geophys Res Lett, Vol. 32, No. 23, L23311, DOI 10.1029/2005GL024342.
[7] Groves, K. M. et al., Proc ION GPS, Sept. 2000.
[8] Hegarty, C. J. and Chatre E., “Evolution of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS),” Proceedings of the IEEE Vol. 96, Issue 12, Dec. 2008.
[9] Hawarey, M., Hobiger, T. & Schuh, H. (2005). Effects of the 2nd order ionospheric terms on VLBI measurements. Geophys Res Lett, Vol. 32, No. 11, L11304, DOI 10.1029/2005GL022729.
[10] Hernandez-Pajares, M., Jaun, J. M., Sanz, J. & Orus, R. (2007). Second order ionospheric term in GPS: implementation and impact on geodetic estimates. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 112, No. B08417, doi: 10.1029/2006JB004707 www.intechopen.
[11] Ionospheric impact on GNSS signals, N. Jakowsky, C. Mayer, M. Hoque, V. Wilken (2008), German Aerospace Center Institute of Communications and Navigation, Física de la Tierra.
[12] Kim, B. C. & Tinin, M. V. (2011). Potentialities of multifrequency ionospheric correction in Global Navigation Satellite Systems. J Geodesy, Vol. 85, No. 3, pp. (159-169), doi: 10.1007/s00190-010-0425.
[13] Klobuchar, J. A. (1996). Ionospheric Effects on GPS, In: Global Positioning System: Theory and Applications, Vol I, Parkinson, B. W. & Spilker, J. J. (Eds.), pp. (485-515), American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics, ISBN 156347106X.
[14] M. Mainul Hoque and Norbert Jakowski (2012). Ionospheric Propagation Effects on GNSS Signals and New Correction Approaches, Global Navigation Satellite Systems: Signal, Theory and Applications, Prof. Shuanggen Jin (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-843-4, In Tech, Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/global-navigation-satellite-systems-signal-theory-andapplications/ionospheric-propagation-effects-on-gnss-signals-and-new-correction-approaches
[15] Seo, J., Walter, T., Chiou, T. Y., Blanch, J., Enge, P., “Evaluation of Deep Signal Fading Effects Due to Ionospheric Scintillation on GPS Aviation Receivers,” Proc. 21st International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of The Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS 2008), Savannah, GA, September 2008, pp. 2397-2404.
[16] Smith, AM; Mitchell, CN; Watson, RJ; Meggs RW; Kintner PM; Kauristie K; Honary F,“GPS scintillation in the high arctic associated with an auroral arc”, Space Weather – The Int’l Journal of Research & Applications, 6 (3): Art. No. S03D01, 2008.
[17] Thomas, R. M., M. A. Cervera, K. Eftaxiadis, S. L. Manurung, S. Saroso, Effendy, A. G. Ramli, W. Salwa Hassan, H. Rahman, M. N. Daliman, K. M. Groves, and Y. Wang, “A regional GPS receiver network for monitoring equatorial scintillation and total electron content”, Radio Science, Vol. 36, No. 6, pp 1545-1557, Nov-Dec 2001.
[18] Van Dierendonck, A. J., J. A. Klobuchar, and Q. Hua, “Ionospheric scintillation monitoring using commercial single frequency C/A/ code receivers”, Proc. of the Institute of Navigation, GPS93, pp. 1333-1324, Inst. of Navig., Alexandria, VA., 1993.
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  • APA Style

    Shreya Sarkar, Anindya Bose. (2022). Comparative Studies on Methods to Overcome the Ionospheric Effects on GNSS Signals. American Journal of Aerospace Engineering, 9(2), 28-32. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajae.20220902.11

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    ACS Style

    Shreya Sarkar; Anindya Bose. Comparative Studies on Methods to Overcome the Ionospheric Effects on GNSS Signals. Am. J. Aerosp. Eng. 2022, 9(2), 28-32. doi: 10.11648/j.ajae.20220902.11

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    AMA Style

    Shreya Sarkar, Anindya Bose. Comparative Studies on Methods to Overcome the Ionospheric Effects on GNSS Signals. Am J Aerosp Eng. 2022;9(2):28-32. doi: 10.11648/j.ajae.20220902.11

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  • @article{10.11648/j.ajae.20220902.11,
      author = {Shreya Sarkar and Anindya Bose},
      title = {Comparative Studies on Methods to Overcome the Ionospheric Effects on GNSS Signals},
      journal = {American Journal of Aerospace Engineering},
      volume = {9},
      number = {2},
      pages = {28-32},
      doi = {10.11648/j.ajae.20220902.11},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajae.20220902.11},
      eprint = {https://download.sciencepg.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ajae.20220902.11},
      abstract = {Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals are relatively weak in nature and are more difficult to detect under impaired visibility conditions. For an effective position solution accuracy measurement of pseudorange solving for three unknown positions (latitude, longitude, and altitude) using at least three satellites are possible. One more satellite is required as time is considered as another unknown for solving the receiver clock bias. Ionospheric delay can cause error in pseudorange measurements. This is caused due to free ions which interfere with the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal. These free ions in the atmosphere are created by solar and cosmic radiation. The ionospheric delay/ phase advance depends on weather, geographic location, solar, geomagnetic activities etc. Therefore, ionospheric delay is unpredictable. Ionospheric delay is considered a significant source of error in measuring the position solution determined by the GNSS signals. This paper proposes two main ideas for overcoming the ionospheric effects. One idea establishes that the inclusion of more satellites or Multi-GNSS scheme could be useful for overcoming the ionospheric effects. The other idea is to deliberately choose ionofree data for obtaining a better solution accuracy. This paper shows the usability of two aforesaid processes in different scenarios. The paper identified the sources of error mentioned by the previous research groups. From this background study the motivation for this research had been identified. Then the paper is organized with research methodology, obtained results, their discussions. In the conclusion section the gaps and future scopes for study have been discussed.},
     year = {2022}
    }
    

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  • TY  - JOUR
    T1  - Comparative Studies on Methods to Overcome the Ionospheric Effects on GNSS Signals
    AU  - Shreya Sarkar
    AU  - Anindya Bose
    Y1  - 2022/08/31
    PY  - 2022
    N1  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajae.20220902.11
    DO  - 10.11648/j.ajae.20220902.11
    T2  - American Journal of Aerospace Engineering
    JF  - American Journal of Aerospace Engineering
    JO  - American Journal of Aerospace Engineering
    SP  - 28
    EP  - 32
    PB  - Science Publishing Group
    SN  - 2376-4821
    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajae.20220902.11
    AB  - Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals are relatively weak in nature and are more difficult to detect under impaired visibility conditions. For an effective position solution accuracy measurement of pseudorange solving for three unknown positions (latitude, longitude, and altitude) using at least three satellites are possible. One more satellite is required as time is considered as another unknown for solving the receiver clock bias. Ionospheric delay can cause error in pseudorange measurements. This is caused due to free ions which interfere with the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal. These free ions in the atmosphere are created by solar and cosmic radiation. The ionospheric delay/ phase advance depends on weather, geographic location, solar, geomagnetic activities etc. Therefore, ionospheric delay is unpredictable. Ionospheric delay is considered a significant source of error in measuring the position solution determined by the GNSS signals. This paper proposes two main ideas for overcoming the ionospheric effects. One idea establishes that the inclusion of more satellites or Multi-GNSS scheme could be useful for overcoming the ionospheric effects. The other idea is to deliberately choose ionofree data for obtaining a better solution accuracy. This paper shows the usability of two aforesaid processes in different scenarios. The paper identified the sources of error mentioned by the previous research groups. From this background study the motivation for this research had been identified. Then the paper is organized with research methodology, obtained results, their discussions. In the conclusion section the gaps and future scopes for study have been discussed.
    VL  - 9
    IS  - 2
    ER  - 

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Author Information
  • Department of Physics, Burdwan Town School, Burdwan, India

  • Department of Physics, The University of Burdwan, Burdwan, India

  • Section